Sleep and Rhythms Projects

Post-Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS) Hepatic Encephalopathy-A Review of the Past Decade’s Literature Focusing on Incidence, Risk Factors, and Prophylaxis

Friis KH, Thomsen KL, Laleman W, Montagnese S, Vilstrup H, Lauridsen MM

J Clin Med

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is an established treatment for portal hypertension and its’ complications in liver cirrhosis, yet the development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) remains a significant concern. This review covers the reported incidence, risk factors, and management strategies for post-TIPS HE over the past decade. Incidence varies widely (7-61%), with factors like age, liver function, hyponatremia, and spontaneous portosystemic shunts influencing risk. Procedural aspects, including TIPS timing, indication, and stent characteristics, also contribute. Pharmacological prophylaxis with lactulose and rifaximin shows promise, but current evidence is inconclusive. Procedural preventive measures, such as shunt embolization and monitoring portal pressure gradients, are explored. Treatment involves pharmacological options like lactulose and rifaximin, and procedural interventions like stent diameter reduction. Ongoing studies on novel predictive markers and emerging treatments, such as faecal microbiota transplant, reflect the evolving landscape in post-TIPS HE management. This concise review provides clinicians with insights into the multifaceted nature of post-TIPS HE, aiding in improved risk assessment, prophylaxis, and management for patients undergoing TIPS procedures.

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