Current Hepatology Reports
This review presents an in-depth overview of the sleep–wake phenotype of patients with cirrhosis, together with available pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment strategies. A set of simple, practical recommendations is also provided.
The understanding of the pathophysiology of sleep disorders in this patient population has improved over the past decade, especially in relation to the interplay between homeostatic and circadian sleep regulation. In addition, new tools have been utilised for both screening and in-depth investigation of the sleep–wake profile of these patients. Finally, a number of studies have evaluated the efficacy of novel treatment strategies, often with encouraging results.
Since sleep disturbances are common in patients with cirrhosis, more so than in patients with other chronic diseases of similar severity, their assessment should become routine hepatological practice, along with the initiation of adequate treatment.